Types Of Foundation In Construction

deep foundations

deep foundations

Construction of building definitely involves foundation because it transfers the weight of the building to the ground. The term “foundation” is a general word with every building having a number of individual foundations called as footings. Since the weight of the building rests on the soil or rock, engineers have to study first the properties of the soil very carefully to ensure that it can carry the loads imposed by the building by determining the ‘safe bearing capacity’ or SBC. Different depths of soil have different capacity. Generally, the greater the depth, the greater SBC there is. The soil must be very firm and strong to properly support a building. Thus, building contracts will dig until they reach a very firm, strong, soil that cannot be dug up easily before constructing a foundation.

Foundations are divided into two categories: shallow and deep foundations, which refer to the depth of soil which the foundation is made. Shallow foundations can be made in depths as little as 3 feet or 1 meter, and is used for small, light buildings. While, deep foundations can be made at depths of 60 up to 200 feet or 20 to 65 meters, and are used for large, heavy buildings.

• Shallow Foundations

These are also spread footings or open footings. The term ‘open’ is used due to the fact that the foundations are made by first excavating all the earth materials until the bottom of the footing, and then constructing the footing. In the early stages of work, the entire footing is visible to the eye, therefore called an open foundation. In cold climates, it is important to protect the foundation from freezing because the water in the soil around it can freeze and expand, thereby damaging the foundation. Shallow foundation should be built below the frost line, the level in the ground above which freezing occurs. As an alternative, the foundation can be protected by insulation. It can be done by providing little heat from the building that will permeate into the soil and prevent freezing. Examples of this type of foundations are: individual footings, strip footings, and raft foundations.

• deep foundations

One example of this is pile foundation, where a pile or a long cylinder of a strong material like concrete is pushed into the ground so that the structures can be supported on top of it. This kind of deep foundation is used when: there is a layer of weak soil at the surface and the layer cannot support the weight of the building; or when a building has very heavy, concentrated loads like in a high rise structure.

Warehouse Management System

The key part of the supply chain is the warehouse management system or WMS. It primarily aims to control the movement and storage of materials and/or products within a warehouse and process the associated transactions, which include shipping, receiving, put-away, and picking. It involves the physical warehouse infrastructure, tracking systems, and communication between product stations. The WMS monitors the progress of the materials and/or products through the warehouse. More precisely, it involves the receipt, storage, and movement of the goods to intermediate storage locations or to a final customer.



With the use of automatic identification and data capture technology, such as barcode scanners, mobile computers, wireless LANs, and potentially radio-frequency identification (RFID), companies can efficiently monitor the flow of products. After the data is collected, there will be either batch synchronization or a real-time wireless transmission to the central database. Although installation of a full-scale warehouse management system can be costly investment, companies will be able to recognize its value. Companies will be able to: achieve real-time visibility into inventory and orders; the system will direct and optimize stock put-away based on real-time information about the status of bin utilization; decrease the time it takes to invoice and receive customer payments; extend mobility to each worker in the warehouse; and be able to balance the business.

Warehouse management system helps streamlining of multiple functions in a company:

  • Receiving: Companies will be able to monitor the shipments that have been delivered, but that are not yet at their final location. In this part, companies will be assured that there will be a reduction in the impact of out-of-stock incidences and inefficient fulfillment processes because the items that are low in stock levels will be staged and put away first.
  • Put-away: This will help in the identification of the location of all inventories on the shelves. Workers will be able to reach the right location, pick the proper order to minimize travel time, and be able to increase the number of orders that they can pick each day.
  • Picking: Workers will be able to receive the list of the materials and/or products and its proper location that they should pick through their mobile devices. By scanning the items, it will be then verified if it is correct and the right quantity is picked. Thus, it improves the error-proofing and productivity in the picking process.
  • Packing: Determining the right sized shipping paraphernalia is important, so that each order that is picked is accurate and the material costs will be reduced.
  • Shipping: It will monitor if the package was properly shipped to the right destination and at the right date.
    Based from the benefits of the WMS system stated, the company will be able to avoid experiencing:
  • Delayed access to information in the system if it has been entered days or weeks late
  • Inaccurate information in the system
  • Mis-shipments
  • Late invoices
  • Difficulty in locating items as they are moved within the warehouse

If your company doesn’t have a comprehensive WMS system, it can be very difficult. You have to rely on paper trails and manual data entry to manage warehouse documents like worker productivity and inventory accuracy, which can be easily compromised if not properly done. There is also the processing of orders that a paper trail will track in every step of the process, which should be manually entered into the system and be filed. If there is a discrepancy, it requires cross referencing of the data in both the system and file cabinets. This kind of work can really affect the business. Nowadays, there are several companies that are offering their services for providing the best warehouse management system. Some of them are Accellos and Barcoding Inc. In terms of shipping materials and/or products, it is really important to use Google maps. You can easily put one in your website. If you want one, you can use the Google Maps generator at embedgooglemaps.com and it is for free.

Ancient Architectural Wonders

1. Gobekli Tepe

gobekli tepe

gobekli tepe

Back in the 1960s, surveyors in Turkey found an ancient buried complex composed of huge stone pillars arranged in a circle like Stonehenge, some of them 30 feet tall.

So those massive, ornate limestone pillars were carefully carved from a nearby quarry using hunks of flint rock and their bare hands.

Having been dated to around 9000 B.C., Gobekli Tepe is thought to be the oldest human construction.

2. Puma Punku

puma punku

puma punku

Pumapunku is a city built by the Tiwanaku people of ancient Bolivia. What sets it apart from just any old ancient city is the almost weird precision of the stonework that would make modern builders envious.

Using an unknown technology, they pioneered a kind of construction that used hundreds of large, identical building blocks to make buildings like you and I would make a house out of LEGO.

To keep the buildings structurally sound, they even used a form of metal I-cramps similar to what we would use today to keep the giant blocks in place in case of an earthquake.

3. The Ancient Marib Dam

the ancient marib dam

the ancient marib dam

Yemen is a country rich in dust and poor in water, which is why in ancient times the empire that controlled it, the Sabaens, built a great dam in 750 B.C.

The dam was regarded one of the greatest feats of engineering of the pre-industrial age. The Sabaens managed all this before the existence of concrete, and their dam stood for over 1,000 years.

The Great Dam of Marib was about 2,000 feet long and while it stood, it converted ancient Yemen into a fertile oasis.

4. Hypogeum of Hal-Saflieni

hypogeum of hal-saflieni

hypogeum of hal-saflieni

On the island of Malta is a prehistoric underground megalithic structure known awesomely as the Hypogeum of Hal-Saflieni. It was discovered by accident in 1902 when some workers were digging a hole and broke through the ceiling.

The three-level underground structure is made entirely out of megalithic stones. What surprised people even more was when they found out that male voice could reverberate throughout the entire complex if the person was standing in a certain spot.

5. Derinkuyu’s Massive, Ancient Underground City

derinkuyu's massive, ancient underground city

derinkuyu’s massive, ancient underground city

Derinkuyu’s underground city was discovered in the 1960s in Turkey, when a modern house above ground was being renovated.

Hidden for centuries right under everyone’s noses, Derinkuyu is just the largest of hundreds of underground complexes built.

The Acropolis

The Acropolis is not a single building but a number of temples build on a hill overlooking Athens. The buildings that survive today are the Parthenon built between, 447 – 438 BC; the Propylaea constructed around 437 BC; The Temple of Athena Nike between 427 BC and 423 BC; and the Erechtheum which was begun in 421 BC, although work ceased between 414 BC and 409 BC, and was completed in 407 BC.

The Acropolis is entered via the Western Approach by the stairway leading to the Propylaea which was built as a gateway. Just across from the Propylaea is the temple of Athena Nike: the goddess of victory. Like the Propylaea, the temple of Athena Nike was restricted by the space available. The temple was used as a treasury where people would deposit their money for safe keeping. One of the strangest Greek temples in design is the Erechtheum as it does not follow the normal rules of Greek temple design. The temple was dedicated to Poseidon and it too was built on two levels due to the uneven land. It has two porches one of which is famous for the Caryatids. At the center of the temple during ancient times a lamp was continually kept burning.



The largest and most important building on the Acropolis is the Parthenon. It was the temple built for Athena Parthenos, the patron goddess of the city. The basic rectangular plan was surrounded by a colonnaded portico of columns on all four sides. It has 8 columns along the front and 15 on each side, 17 counting the corner ones. Each column had a number of stone drums, in the case of the Parthenon there were 11, and each drum is aligned with wood dowels placed in central holes to line them up. The building was richly decorated with sculptures – many of which were removed in 1802 by Lord Elgin and are now in the British Museum.

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Construction Engineering

Construction engineering is a professional discipline that involves the designing, planning, construction, and management of infrastructures, such as: highways, bridges, airports, railroads, buildings, dams, and utilities.

Construction engineers are like a combination of civil engineers and construction managers. They learn the designing aspect like civil engineers and the construction site management functions like construction managers. Construction manager specifically focuses on construction procedures, methods, and people management. Their primary concern is to deliver the project on time, within budget, and its desired quality. On the other hand, civil engineer concentrates more on the design work, essentially requiring them to take a multitude of design courses.

construction engineering

For a construction engineer, they have the ability to take the Professional Engineer licensure exam that will give them the title of engineer. They take design courses as well as construction management courses. Therefore, construction engineer should understand both the design function and the building requirements needed to design the build an infrastructure at the same time. They should be able to create infrastructure that best meets the unique demands of its environment, understand infrastructure life cycles, and have the perspective to solve technical challenges with clarity and imagination. Therefore, a construction engineer should have a strong understanding of math and science, and other skills that include critical and analytical thinking, time management, people management, and good communication skills.

If you wanted to pursue a career as a construction engineer, the entry-level position is typically called project engineers or assistant project engineers. They are responsible for preparing purchasing requisitions, processing change orders, preparing monthly budgeting reports, and handling meeting minutes. For this career, it is not necessary to acquire a Professional Engineer license, but it can be good for your career and will make you more preferable than other candidates for the job. Note that it is strongly advised to sit for the Engineer in Training exam or EIT while you are in college because it takes four to five years post graduate to obtain the PE license.


One of the most famous commercial software applications for 2D and 3D computer-aided design (CAD) and drafting is the AutoCAD. It is the most ubiquitous CAD program worldwide and used across a wide range of industries, by architects, project managers, engineers, graphic designers, and other professionals. This software is developed and marketed by Autodesk, Inc. and was first released in December 1982 as a desktop application. Presently, it is supported by 750 available training centers worldwide. It mainly runs on microcomputers with internal graphics controllers. Before the introduction of AutoCAD, most commercial CAD programs ran on mainframe computers or minicomputers, with each CAD operator working at a separate graphics terminal.


Currently, there are three variants available for the AutoCAD: the AutoCAD LT, AutoCAD 360, and a student version. The AutoCAD LT is the lower cost version of AutoCAD with reduced capabilities. It was first released in November 1993. This version is simply an entry-level CAD package to compete in the lower price level, thus it lacks several features: it lacks the ability to create, visualize, and render 3D models as well as 3D printing; it cannot be used on multiple machines over a network; it doesn’t support customization with LISP, ARX, and VBA; but it has management and automation capabilities with Sheet Set Manager and Action Recorder; and CAD standards management tools. The second variant is AutoCAD 360. This is an account-based mobile and web application that enables registered users to view, edit, and share AutoCAD files via their smart phones and computer or laptop that uses a cloud-stored drawing files. The amount of storage, tools, and online access to drawings vary depending on your plan, it can be free, Pro plan worth $49.99 yearly, or Pro Plus worth $99.99 yearly. Its new feature is the ‘Smart Pen’ mode and being able to link to third-party cloud-based storage. You can also use the application with Firefox and Google Chrome. For the student version, it is free for qualifying students and teachers with an 18-month renewable license available. In this software, its functionality is identical to the full commercial version, except for the internal bit-flag set or the ‘educational flag’ in the DWG files created or edited. The output includes a plot stamp/banner on all four sides, which cannot be used for commercial use. With the help of the internet, we can now download all types of files, such as documents, music, videos, movies, and even the AutoCAD file. Downloading large files will definitely take a while, but with the help of premium link generators, you will have access to link generator with quality files and at the same time, not waste too much time downloading.

World’s Most Beautiful Buildings

  • Institute for Sound and Vision, Hilversum, Netherlands


The Institute for Sound and Vision collects and provides access to over 70% of the Dutch audio-visual heritage. The collection of more than 750,000 hours of television, radio, music and film that began in 1898 and continues to grow daily makes Sound and Vision one of the largest audiovisual archives in Europe.

Sound and Vision is the business archive of the national broadcasting corporations, a cultural heritage institute and also a museum for its visitors.

  • Sagrada Família, Barcelona


It is a large Roman Catholic church in Barcelona, Catalonia designed by Catalan architect Antoni Gaudí.

The basilica has a long history of dividing the citizens of Barcelona.

  • The Golden Temple, Amritsar, India


It is considered the holiest Sikh gurdwara located in the city of Amritsar, Punjab, India. The Harmandir Sahib, also known as the Golden Temple, was designed by the fifth guru, Guru Arjan, who had the cornerstone laid by the Muslim Sufi saint Sai Hazrat Mian Mir on 28 December 1588. Guru Arjan completed the Adi Granth, the holy scripture of Sikhism, in 1604 and installed it in the gurdwara.


  • The Guggenheim, Bilbao, Spain


This is a museum of modern and contemporary art, designed by Canadian-American architect Frank Gehry. The museum was inaugurated on October 18, 1997, by former King Juan Carlos I of Spain. Built alongside the Nervion River, which runs through the city of Bilbao to the Cantabrian Sea, it is one of several museums belonging to the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation and features permanent and visiting exhibits of works by Spanish and international artists.

  • Catherine Palace, Outside St. Petersburg, Russia


The residence originated in 1717, when Catherine I of Russia hired German architect Johann-Friedrich Braunstein to construct a summer palace for her pleasure.

  • Burj Al Arab, Dubai, UAE


It is a luxury hotel located in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. It has been called “The world’s only 7 star Hotel” and is the fourth tallest hotel in the world. Burj Al Arab stands on an artificial island 280 m from Jumeirah beach and is connected to the mainland by a private curving bridge. The shape of the structure is designed to mimic the sail of a ship. It has a helipad near the roof at a height of 210 m above ground.